Do I have to apply for an eTA each time I travel to Canada?

No, you do not need to apply for an eTA each time you travel to Canada. When your eTA is approved, it is valid for five years and within that time you can travel to Canada multiple times using the same eTA, as long as your passport is still valid.
The eTA was introduced to improve the security of the Canada border but it has also been designed to make travelling to Canada for low risk travellers as straightforward as possible. For frequent visitors e.g. people who travel to Canada for business, investments or to visit family, the eTA is a quick and simple way to get authorisation for their travel.